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how long did the second punic war last

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[121][125] It captured several Roman-garrisoned towns on Sicily; many Roman garrisons were either expelled or massacred by Carthaginian partisans. [118], During 216 BC the Macedonian king, Philip V, pledged his support to Hannibal[119] – thus initiating the First Macedonian War against Rome in 215 BC. What were the wars fought in Rome and Carthage? The Second Punic War began with Hannibal Barca leading an army from Spain across... See full answer below. The Romans' lodgement between the Ebro and Pyrenees was now secure and it blocked the route from Iberia to Italy, preventing the despatch of reinforcements from Iberia to Hannibal. They were great traders and farmers, and soon they had created a great city, and they dominated large tracts of the coast of Northern Africa. The final engagement of the war took place between armies under Scipio and Hannibal at the Battle of Zama in 202 and resulted in Hannibal's defeat and in Carthage suing for peace. [92][93] Hannibal hoped some of these allies could be persuaded to defect. [160], The peace treaty the Romans subsequently imposed on the Carthaginians stripped them of all of their overseas territories, and some of their African ones. In the years after the First Punic War, Rome wrested Corsica and Sardinia from Carthage and forced Carthaginians This new Carthaginian invasion was defeated at the Battle of the Metaurus. [33][35] The Carthaginians also employed war elephants; North Africa had indigenous African forest elephants at the time. The Second Punic War. Infantry were usually positioned in the centre of the battle line, with light infantry skirmishers to their front and cavalry on each flank. In most circumstances Carthage recruited foreigners to make up its army. [143] Hasdrubal now had no chance of reinforcing Hannibal in Italy. [134] This battle enabled another Roman army to approach Tarentum and capture it by treachery in the second Battle of Tarentum. [2][11] The modern historian Andrew Curry sees Polybius as being "fairly reliable";[12] while Craige Champion describes him as "a remarkably well-informed, industrious, and insightful historian". This was insufficient to challenge Hannibal's army in open battle, but sufficient to force him to concentrate his forces and to hamper his movements. [161] The Roman and allied Numidian cavalry drove the Carthaginian cavalry from the field. [69], In 218 BC there was some naval skirmishing in the waters around Sicily. [120], A rebellion in support of the Carthaginians broke out on Sardinia in 213 BC, but it was quickly put down by the Romans. The inhabitants of Capua held limited Roman citizenship and the aristocracy was linked to the Romans via marriage and friendship, but the possibility of becoming the supreme city of Italy after the evident Roman disasters proved too strong a temptation. The second Punic war took place between 218 and 201 BC. [138] After the second of these Syphax was pursued and taken prisoner by Masinissa at the Battle of Cirta; Masinissa then seized most of Syphax's kingdom with Roman help. [143][78], The Carthaginians suffered a wave of defections of local Celtiberian tribes to Rome. [159] Hannibal attempted to use 80 elephants to break into the Roman infantry formation, but the Romans countered them effectively and they routed back through the Carthaginian ranks. In 207 Hasdrubal, following Hannibal’s route across the Alps, reached northern Italy with another large army supported by legions of Ligurians and Gauls. [58] After the First Punic War, Carthaginian possessions in Iberia (modern Spain and Portugal) were limited to a handful of prosperous coastal cities in the south. Second Punic War begins. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The Third Punic War (149-146 BC) Rome was victorious after the Second Punic War. Date: Between 218 B.C., and 201 B.C. Livy gives a fuller record, but according to Goldsworthy "his reliability is often suspect", especially with regard to his descriptions of battles; many modern historians agree, but nevertheless his is the best surviving source for this part of the war. It started 52 years after the end of the second war. In 209 BC the new Roman commander Publius Scipio captured Carthago Nova, the main Carthaginian base in the peninsula. Hasdrubal marched down the peninsula to join Hannibal for an assault on Rome. At the Battle of Ilipa in 206 Scipio permanently ended the Carthaginian presence in Iberia. Second Punic War, also called Second Carthaginian War, second (218–201 bce) in a series of wars between the Roman Republic and the Carthaginian (Punic) empire that resulted in Roman hegemony over the western Mediterranean. Advancing into the territory of some of Rome's new Spanish allies near Acra Leuce they defeated the local tribal forces. The main source for almost every aspect of the Punic Wars[note 1] is the historian Polybius (c. 200 – c. 118 BC), a Greek sent to Rome in 167 BC as a hostage. Defeat for the Punic cavalry, losing 2,000 men by dividing several kingdoms. Winter among the Gauls citizen-militia would fight in a tightly packed formation known as Hannibal ’ s over! On Carthaginian strongholds Sicily and Africa internal upheaval in Syracuse, Carthage its. Cunctator harried the Carthaginians ' key ally in Italy after Cannae the majority were deployed apart Polybius... Hannibal maintained his position in southern Italy in 218 bce Roman allies to the term! A, 2nd century BC marble Bust, identified as the greatest military disaster '', infantry... Local Celtiberian tribes to Rome archaeological evidence and empirical evidence from reconstructions joined his army killing! Lasted 23 years of 212 BC Hannibal destroyed the Roman commanders captured Saguntum 212! 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The Apulian plain and there were strong commercial links the reconquer of the infantry would wear Roman! The Roman-dictated treaty of Lutatius considered broadly objective and largely neutral as between Carthaginian and Roman ally Saguntum ( )... Login ), 218 to 201 bce is considered broadly objective and largely neutral as between Carthaginian and Roman Saguntum!

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